We Don’t Need No Stinking NAT – OpenStack Address Scopes

I have heard from many OpenStack operators over the last few years and they are looking for a way to get rid of the mandatory implementation of IPv4 NAT with OpenStack. Historically, the way to achieve this was to deploy provider networks with VLANs, attach instances directly to these provider networks and just route out through the Data Center without any need/requirement of NAT until the traffic reached the Internet Edge.

In the Mitaka release of OpenStack, Address Scopes and Subnet Pools were introduced.  One method of disabling IPv4 NAT is to match address scopes on the external and internal sides of the Neutron router (in a future post I will talk about disabling SNAT as another option).  This is done by creating an address scope, creating subnet pools that use that address scope and then creating networks/subnets from those subnet pools.  If the external and internal (tenant) subnets use the same ‘scope’ then NAT is disabled in the Neutron L3 component.  More can be found here: OpenStack Docs: Address scopes

A quick test reveals some issues with this as a mainstream method of removing IPv4 NAT from a cloud deployment:

  • Address scope and subnet pool use are mandatory
  • You cannot manually assign a subnet allocation pool range OR a custom gateway (“Bad subnets request: allocation_pools allowed only for specific subnet requests..”). This is a major issue when you need to define a custom upstream (provider) gateway address. Note: I resolved this by editing the subnet by hand (before creating any routers) and changing the allocation range and changing the default gateway IP address.
  • You have to sub-allocate prefixes/CIDR ranges out of the subnet pool which is typically something the cloud/network operator would do upstream at the DC Agg layer, routed access or Border Leaf

Test scenario:

  • All-in-One RDO VM (Newton) on VMware Fusion
  • Eth1<>br-ex
  • Public Network: 192.168.81.0/24
  • One Address Scope
  • Two Subnet Pools out of the 192.168.81.0/24 range, divided as /26s

Create an Address Scope:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron address-scope-create --shared test-no-nat 4
Created a new address_scope:
+------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field      | Value                                |
+------------+--------------------------------------+
| id         | 6f055310-6225-403c-a14d-acd723757869 |
| ip_version | 4                                    |
| name       | test-no-nat                          |
| project_id | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| shared     | True                                 |
| tenant_id  | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
+------------+--------------------------------------+

Create a new subnet pool using the new address scope:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron subnetpool-create --address-scope test-no-nat --shared --pool-prefix 192.168.81.0/24 --default-prefixlen 26 nonat-pool-ip4
Created a new subnetpool:
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| address_scope_id  | 6f055310-6225-403c-a14d-acd723757869 |
| created_at        | 2016-11-04T19:59:10Z                 |
| default_prefixlen | 26                                   |
| default_quota     |                                      |
| description       |                                      |
| id                | 964ae834-9391-4aa2-bc7b-b1c197d4d4c5 |
| ip_version        | 4                                    |
| is_default        | False                                |
| max_prefixlen     | 32                                   |
| min_prefixlen     | 8                                    |
| name              | nonat-pool-ip4                       |
| prefixes          | 192.168.81.0/24                      |
| project_id        | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| revision_number   | 1                                    |
| shared            | True                                 |
| tenant_id         | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| updated_at        | 2016-11-04T19:59:10Z                 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

Create a new network for the Public/External side:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron net-create Public-Net --provider:network_type vxlan --shared --router:external
Created a new network:
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                     | Value                                |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up            | True                                 |
| availability_zone_hints   |                                      |
| availability_zones        |                                      |
| created_at                | 2016-11-04T19:59:21Z                 |
| description               |                                      |
| id                        | 4d68a85a-eac9-44a3-84b7-eec3b731d97a |
| ipv4_address_scope        |                                      |
| ipv6_address_scope        |                                      |
| is_default                | False                                |
| mtu                       | 1450                                 |
| name                      | Public-Net                           |
| project_id                | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| provider:network_type     | vxlan                                |
| provider:physical_network |                                      |
| provider:segmentation_id  | 71                                   |
| revision_number           | 2                                    |
| router:external           | True                                 |
| shared                    | True                                 |
| status                    | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets                   |                                      |
| tags                      |                                      |
| tenant_id                 | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| updated_at                | 2016-11-04T19:59:21Z                 |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

Create a new subnet for the public/external network and reference the new subnet pool:
#Note: This is where you cannot dictate the ‘gateway_ip’ value manually. If you attempt to you either get an error (see the output in my list of issues in the beginning of the doc) or it ignores it (not consistent).

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron subnet-create Public-Net --name Public-Subnet --subnetpool nonat-pool-ip4 --dns-nameserver 8.8.8.8
Created a new subnet:
+-------------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                             |
+-------------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools  | {"start": "192.168.81.2", "end": "192.168.81.62"} |
| cidr              | 192.168.81.0/26                                   |
| created_at        | 2016-11-04T20:00:44Z                              |
| description       |                                                   |
| dns_nameservers   | 8.8.8.8                                           |
| enable_dhcp       | True                                              |
| gateway_ip        | 192.168.81.1                                      |
| host_routes       |                                                   |
| id                | 30c3f341-ad77-4f27-ae55-d469d8004266              |
| ip_version        | 4                                                 |
| ipv6_address_mode |                                                   |
| ipv6_ra_mode      |                                                   |
| name              | Public-Subnet                                     |
| network_id        | 4d68a85a-eac9-44a3-84b7-eec3b731d97a              |
| project_id        | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc                  |
| revision_number   | 2                                                 |
| service_types     |                                                   |
| subnetpool_id     | 964ae834-9391-4aa2-bc7b-b1c197d4d4c5              |
| tenant_id         | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc                  |
| updated_at        | 2016-11-04T20:00:44Z                              |
+-------------------+---------------------------------------------------+

Create a Tenant network:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron net-create nonat-net-1
Created a new network:
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                     | Value                                |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up            | True                                 |
| availability_zone_hints   |                                      |
| availability_zones        |                                      |
| created_at                | 2016-11-04T20:02:24Z                 |
| description               |                                      |
| id                        | e5ae8309-beb8-4bcd-a9ee-87be39004eff |
| ipv4_address_scope        |                                      |
| ipv6_address_scope        |                                      |
| mtu                       | 1450                                 |
| name                      | nonat-net-1                          |
| project_id                | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| provider:network_type     | vxlan                                |
| provider:physical_network |                                      |
| provider:segmentation_id  | 32                                   |
| revision_number           | 2                                    |
| router:external           | False                                |
| shared                    | False                                |
| status                    | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets                   |                                      |
| tags                      |                                      |
| tenant_id                 | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| updated_at                | 2016-11-04T20:02:24Z                 |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

Create a new subnet for the new Tenant network and use the new subnet pool:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron subnet-create --name nonat-subnet-1 --subnetpool nonat-pool-ip4 nonat-net-1
Created a new subnet:
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                               |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools  | {"start": "192.168.81.66", "end": "192.168.81.126"} |
| cidr              | 192.168.81.64/26                                    |
| created_at        | 2016-11-04T20:02:43Z                                |
| description       |                                                     |
| dns_nameservers   |                                                     |
| enable_dhcp       | True                                                |
| gateway_ip        | 192.168.81.65                                       |
| host_routes       |                                                     |
| id                | f24de73f-8ff7-48df-a5e9-c2d5d43bb154                |
| ip_version        | 4                                                   |
| ipv6_address_mode |                                                     |
| ipv6_ra_mode      |                                                     |
| name              | nonat-subnet-1                                      |
| network_id        | e5ae8309-beb8-4bcd-a9ee-87be39004eff                |
| project_id        | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc                    |
| revision_number   | 2                                                   |
| service_types     |                                                     |
| subnetpool_id     | 964ae834-9391-4aa2-bc7b-b1c197d4d4c5                |
| tenant_id         | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc                    |
| updated_at        | 2016-11-04T20:02:43Z                                |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+

Create a new router:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron router-create no-nat-router
Created a new router:
+-------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                   | Value                                |
+-------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up          | True                                 |
| availability_zone_hints |                                      |
| availability_zones      |                                      |
| created_at              | 2016-11-04T20:02:54Z                 |
| description             |                                      |
| distributed             | False                                |
| external_gateway_info   |                                      |
| flavor_id               |                                      |
| ha                      | True                                 |
| id                      | 31a09399-fd79-4d0f-8354-f700393a8138 |
| name                    | no-nat-router                        |
| project_id              | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| revision_number         | 2                                    |
| routes                  |                                      |
| status                  | ACTIVE                               |
| tenant_id               | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc     |
| updated_at              | 2016-11-04T20:02:54Z                 |
+-------------------------+--------------------------------------+

Link the router interfaces and gateway to the new networks:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron router-interface-add no-nat-router nonat-subnet-1
Added interface b27f6296-9353-4b4a-b96e-55c88ba97177 to router no-nat-router.

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron router-gateway-set no-nat-router Public-Net
Set gateway for router no-nat-router

Boot an instance and attach it to the new “nonat-net-1” network which is using subnet pool “nonet-pool-ip4”:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# nova boot --flavor m1.tiny --image cirros --key-name aio-key --security-groups default --nic net-name=nonat-net-1 nonat-vm
+--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| Property                             | Value                                         |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig                    | MANUAL                                        |
| OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone          |                                               |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:host                 | -                                             |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:hostname             | nonat-vm                                      |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:hypervisor_hostname  | -                                             |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:instance_name        |                                               |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:kernel_id            |                                               |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:launch_index         | 0                                             |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:ramdisk_id           |                                               |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:reservation_id       | r-rwlgkfoi                                    |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:root_device_name     | -                                             |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:user_data            | -                                             |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state               | 0                                             |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state                | scheduling                                    |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                  | building                                      |
| OS-SRV-USG:launched_at               | -                                             |
| OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at             | -                                             |
| accessIPv4                           |                                               |
| accessIPv6                           |                                               |
| adminPass                            | 5efCnNeo7P5a                                  |
| config_drive                         |                                               |
| created                              | 2016-11-04T20:06:50Z                          |
| description                          | -                                             |
| flavor                               | m1.tiny (1)                                   |
| hostId                               |                                               |
| host_status                          |                                               |
| id                                   | 6f788d79-6b4b-4d58-a0be-84856de5207e          |
| image                                | cirros (403de225-2186-4fb0-8b19-020c57300fb7) |
| key_name                             | aio-key                                       |
| locked                               | False                                         |
| metadata                             | {}                                            |
| name                                 | nonat-vm                                      |
| os-extended-volumes:volumes_attached | []                                            |
| progress                             | 0                                             |
| security_groups                      | default                                       |
| status                               | BUILD                                         |
| tags                                 | []                                            |
| tenant_id                            | 67ddc0b4822f4b67b3e4a449dbbe65bc              |
| updated                              | 2016-11-04T20:06:50Z                          |
| user_id                              | cab9fe684b0a4ddc9ba0f57acafeb2bb              |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+

Grab reference information for the instance and the router:

[root@c7-n-aio ~]# nova list
+--------------------------------------+----------+--------+------------+-------------+---------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name     | Status | Task State | Power State | Networks                  |
+--------------------------------------+----------+--------+------------+-------------+---------------------------+
| 6f788d79-6b4b-4d58-a0be-84856de5207e | nonat-vm | ACTIVE | -          | Running     | nonat-net-1=192.168.81.74 |
+--------------------------------------+----------+--------+------------+-------------+---------------------------+
[root@c7-n-aio ~]# neutron router-list
+--------------------------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------------+-------------+------+
| id                                   | name           | external_gateway_info                         | distributed | ha   |
+--------------------------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------------+-------------+------+
| 31a09399-fd79-4d0f-8354-f700393a8138 | no-nat-router  | {"network_id": "4d68a85a-                     | False       | True |
|                                      |                | eac9-44a3-84b7-eec3b731d97a", "enable_snat":  |             |      |
|                                      |                | true, "external_fixed_ips": [{"subnet_id":    |             |      |
|                                      |                | "30c3f341-ad77-4f27-ae55-d469d8004266",       |             |      |
|                                      |                | "ip_address": "192.168.81.12"}]}              |             |      |
| da5fc542-9028-4315-b66f-13a11d8ef87d | Private-Router | null                                          | False       | True |
+--------------------------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------------+-------------+------+

From an outside (external to OpenStack) host, ping the IPv4 address of the router interface (it works):

# ping 192.168.81.12
PING 192.168.81.12 (192.168.81.12): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 192.168.81.12: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=1.523 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.81.12: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.232 ms

From an outside (external to OpenStack host, ping the IPv4 address of the instance (it doesn’t work):

# ping 192.168.81.74
PING 192.168.81.74 (192.168.81.74): 56 data bytes
Request timeout for icmp_seq 0

Add a route on the network gear or the host pointing to the Tenant subnet via the Neutron router IP (in this example it is my Mac which is hosting the VMware Fusion VMs this is running on):

# sudo route -n add 192.168.81.64/26 192.168.81.12
add net 192.168.81.64: gateway 192.168.81.12

Ping the instance from external host. It works without a floating IP and no NAT:

# ping 192.168.81.74
PING 192.168.81.74 (192.168.81.74): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 192.168.81.74: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=1.101 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.81.74: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=1.058 ms

 

 

2 thoughts on “We Don’t Need No Stinking NAT – OpenStack Address Scopes”

  1. Thanks Shannon. Oddly, I like the display of this blog on SuperUser better (with code in white on black more or less) vs this which has black on white. But the reason I even bring that up is it is very easy to read the non-code parts you have written and get the gist of what’s going on without studying the actual code/bash/console output. Nicely produced/edited.

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